Building a Better Physician — The Case for the New MCAT

The NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL of MEDICINE april 5, 2012   The Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), a prerequisite for admission to U.S. medical schools, currently consists of four sections: physical sciences, verbal reasoning, a writing sample, and biologic sciences. A 2004 Institute of Medicine report on “Improving Medical Education” and several years of evaluation identified / прочети повече

Westermark S ign in Pulmonary Embolism

Признак на WESTERMARK при белодробна емболия – Westermark Sign in Pulmonary Embolism

Westermark Sign in Pulmonary Embolism Anant Subramanian Krishnan, M.D. Tristan Barrett, M.D. Addenbrooke’s Hospital Cambridge, United Kingdom A 47-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with acute shortness of breath and hypoxemia. Her medical history included sex reassignment, for which she was taking estrogen, and a deep-vein thrombosis on the left side, for which she / прочети повече


Вземането на диагностично решение при солитарни възли (нодули) на белия дроб – Decision Making in Patients with Pulmonary Nodules

Decision Making in Patients with Pulmonary Nodules   David E. Ost1 and Michael K. Gould2 1Department of Pulmonary Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas; and 2Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California   Integrating current evidence with fundamental / прочети повече

Guidelines for the management of adult lower respiratory tract infections

Guidelines for the management of adult lower respiratory tract infections

Introduction In 2005 the European Respiratory Society (ERS), in collaboration with The European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID), published guidelines on the management of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in adults [1]. This document was based on published scientific literature up to the end of 2002. We have now updated these guidelines / прочети повече


Treatment of Tuberculosis

SUMMARY Responsibility for Successful Treatment The overall goals for treatment of tuberculosis are (1) to cure the individual patient, and (2) to minimize the transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to other persons. Thus, successful treatment of tuberculosis has benefits both for the individual patient and the community in which the patient resides. For this reason the / прочети повече

New guidelines for the management of adult lower respiratory tract infections

Guidelines for the management of adult lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) were first published by a Task Force of the European Respiratory Society (ERS) in 1998 [1]. In 2005, a completely revised version was produced, this time by a joint Task Force of the ERS and the European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases / прочети повече

FIGURE 1. Mean pulmonary artery pressure (P¯pa) in a hospital-based cohort of 998 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with a mild to very severe airflow limitation.

Pulmonary hypertension in COPD

ABSTRACT: Mild-to-moderate pulmonary hypertension is a common complication of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); such a complication is associated with increased risks of exacerbation and decreased survival. Pulmonary hypertension usually worsens during exercise, sleep and exacerbation. Pulmonary vascular remodelling in COPD is the main cause of increase in pulmonary artery pressure and is thought to / прочети повече

FIGURE 1. Definition of a morbidity/mortality event: primary end-point used in the SERAPHIN trial.

Looking to the future: a new decade of pulmonary arterial hypertension therapy

ABSTRACT: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a severe and debilitating disease characterised by vascular proliferation and remodelling of the small pulmonary arteries, leading to a progressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance, increased afterload on the right ventricle and, ultimately, right heart failure. Although there is no ‘‘cure’’ for PAH, the availability of targeted therapies over / прочети повече

Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Evidence-based Guidelines for Diagnosis and Management

This document is an international evidence-based guideline on the diagnosis and management of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and is a collaborative effort of the American Thoracic Society, the European Respiratory Society, the Japanese Respiratory Society, and the Latin American Thoracic Association. It represents the current state of knowledge regarding idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and contains sectionsondefinitionandepidemiology, / прочети повече


Emphysema — A Disease of Small Airways or Lung Parenchyma?

In 1984, the Division of Lung Diseases at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute funded a workshop that led to what is still the basis for most definitions of emphysema: “a condition of the lung characterized by abnormal, permanent enlargement of airspaces distal to the terminal bronchiole, accompanied by the destruction of their walls, / прочети повече